Tämä keskustelupalsta on arkistoitu, eikä tänne ilmesty enää uusia viestejä.
RobertKLR 29.09.2014 23:38
Great article, Commanding. I've been to the general location of the battle but I don't know exactly where the cavalry came down the canyon and where the Indians' camps were at. Any idea if that information was ever saved by anyone? I've visited the McClellan Creek (actually fought on the North Fork of the Red River), Buffalo Wallow, and Adobe Walls battle sites and got inducted into the Cheyenne tribe with some other veterans about 3 years ago. I was very surprised that many of them view the cavalry in high regard. As one told me, "We were a warrior society and fighting a brave enemy makes us brave also, even if we lose".
Laajenna
RobertKLR 02.10.2014 04:57
In 1944 on this day the Kenedy Alien Detention camp in Kenedy, Texas became a POW camp for wounded Germans from the Battle of the Bulge. Their guards were the Americans wounded in the same battle.

The Kenedy Alien Detention camp continued in operation until October 1, 1944, when the United States Army took over its operation. Shortly after that, a trainload of wounded and disabled German army veterans from the Battle of the Bulge arrived. American soldiers who had been wounded in that battle served as their guards. The camp was disbanded shortly after World War II. The camp was disbanded shortly after World War II. In 1992 only two water towers, a concrete slab of the slaughtering house, and five graves of internees remained to mark the site
but before that ...
The Kenedy Alien Detention Camp was one of several World War II internment camps established in the United States to detain alien civilians. In March 1942 the United States Border Patrol entered into an agreement with the town of Kenedy, Texas, to lease the former J. M. Nichols CCC Camp on the southern outskirts of town for the Immigration and Naturalization Service. The lease was made for the purpose of establishing an alien internment camp wherein aliens from the United States and Latin America who were considered dangerous to the public safety could be interned. At the outset of World War II, when conditions were bleak for the Allies, the United States undertook to protect its national interests by entering into agreement with Latin-American countries to arrest and intern for the duration of the war all resident aliens or citizens of German, Japanese, or Italian descent who could possibly aid the Axis war effort. Alien families would be sent to an internment camp at Crystal City, Texas, and single males would be sent to the internment camp at Kenedy.

http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/o...articles/qckpw
Laajenna
RobertKLR 14.10.2014 00:19
On Oct. 13, 1943, one month after Italy surrendered to Allied forces, it declared war on Nazi Germany, its onetime Axis powers partner.
http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/20...ype=blogs&_r=0
Laajenna
commanding 14.10.2014 00:30
Quote Originally Posted by RobertKLRView PostIn 1944 on this day the Kenedy Alien Detention camp in Kenedy, Texas became a POW camp for wounded Germans from the Battle of the Bulge. Their guards were the Americans wounded in the same battle.



but before that ...


http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/o...articles/qckpw
interesting, I did not know that about the Kenedy TX camp and the BOTB.
token money the internees used at the WWII Seagoville, TX camp


and the WWII Crystal City TX camp
Laajenna
Andy-M 14.10.2014 20:13
On this day in 1939 the British battleship HMS Royal Oak was sunk inside Scapa Flow by the German U-Boat U47 with 833 lives lost.

http://www.hmsroyaloak.co.uk/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Royal_Oak_%2808%29

survivors tell their story

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-29595363
Laajenna
LineDoggie 15.10.2014 02:04
Um Wounded German Veterans of the Battle of the Bulge arrived in October 1944?

Uh Guys, Wacht am Rhine didnt begin until December 16th, 1944
Laajenna
RobertKLR 16.10.2014 01:22
Quote Originally Posted by LineDoggieView PostUm Wounded German Veterans of the Battle of the Bulge arrived in October 1944?

Uh Guys, Wacht am Rhine didnt begin until December 16th, 1944
I didn't notice that but the article said the Army took possession on October 1st then "shortly after" the POWs arrived... although 2 1/2 months or more is a bit of a stretch for "shortly after".
Laajenna
Redders 28.10.2014 14:33
Click image for larger version. Name:10734128_10152862478953343_83978382262052357_n.jpg Views:0 Size:41.3 KB ID:226701

Today marks the 350th anniversary of the formation of the Royal Marines.

At The Court Of Whitehall The 28th October 1664
Present The Kings Most Excellent Majestie
His Royal Highness Ye Duke of York, Lord Chancellor, Lord Treasurer,Duke of Albermarle, Duke of Ormond, Lord Chamberlain, Earle of Angelesey, Earle of Lauderdaill, Earle of Middleton, Lord Bishopp of London, Lord Ashley, Mr Vice Chamberlain, Mr Secretary Morice, Mr Secretary Bennet, Mr Chancellor of Ye Dutchy, Sir Edward Nicholas Upon a report from the Lords Committee of the Affayres of His Majesites Navy Royall and Admiralty of this Kingdome this read at the board His Majestie was pleased to order and direct that twelve hundred land soldiers be forthwith raysed, to be in readinesse, to be distributed into Majesties Fleets prepared for sea service which said twelve hundred men are to be out into one regiment under one Colonell, one Lieutenant Colnell and one Sergeant Major. And be divided into six companies, each company to consist of two hundred souldjers; and to have one Captain, one Lieutenant, one Ensigne, one Drume, fowre Sergeants, and fowre Corporalls, and all the souldjers aforesaid to be armed with good firelocks; all which armies, drumes and colours are forthwith to be prepared and furnished out his majesities stoares; the care of all which is recommended to the Duke of Albermarle his grace, lord General of his Majesties Forces.”

So to Royal Marines past and present; Happy Birthday!
Laajenna
desertswo 28.10.2014 15:38
Frankly, I'm shocked that no one noticed that October 25th was the 70th anniversary of the Battle Off Samar. Taffy 3. "Turkey trots to water. Where is, repeat, where is Task Force 34? The world wonders." Ernie "the Chief" Evans and the "Last charge of the tin can sailors." Shame on me for not remembering, as my father was there.


Oh yeah, October 25th is also the anniversary of the Battle of Balaclava and the Charge of the Light Brigade. Just sayin'.
Laajenna
valtrex 09.11.2014 02:21

326 AD: Roman Emperor Constantine moves the imperial capital closer to the eastern provinces of the fear of Germanic invasion of the western part of the Roman Empire, and for commercial benefits, as the East was richer and near to the Silk Route.
The ancient Greek, Megaran colony of Byzantium on the Bosphorus fulfilled these requirements, and on 8 November, 326 the site of the new capital, named Νova Roma (=New Rome) was consecrated.
According to Byzantine legend, the Emperor was tracing the boundaries of the city with a spear, when his courtiers became astonished by the magnitude of the new dimensions of the capital.
"Sire" they asked, "how long will you keep going?"
The Emperor replied, "I shall keep going until the one who walks ahead of me stops."
Then they understood that Constantine was being guided by some angelic power.



Mosaic on the SW entrance of Haghia Sophia (Holy Wisdom) Cathedral ca 1000 AD. Emperors Justinian (left) and Constantine (right) flank Mary and
baby Jesus, and offer them the City's cathedral and the City itself, respectively.





Construction of the main buildings begins in 327, and pagan monuments from Rome, Athens, and other cities are used to beautify the new capital.
Christian New Rome was placed under the protection of the Theotokos (=Gr. for Mary, "The God-bearer").
The City is called by its inhabitants Νέα Ῥώμη-Néa Rhṓmē (=New Rome), Ἑῴα Ῥώμη-Heṓa Rhṓmē (=Eastern Rome), and since 408 AD officially Κωνσταντινούπολις-Kōnstantinoúpolis (=Constantine's City, Constantinople).


http://www.youtube.com/embed/Tyr3j1jUfZI?wmode=opaque
The Byzantine Empire's "National Anthem" since 626 AD "To thee the Champion General" dedicated to Mary:
Τῇ Ὑπερμάχῳ Στρατηγῷ τὰ νικητήρια
ὡς λυτρωθεῖσα τῶν δεινῶν εὐχαριστήρια
ἀναγράφω σοι ἡ Πόλις σου Θεοτόκε.


Ἀλλ'ὡς ἔχουσα τὸ κράτος ἀπροσμάχητον
ἐκ παντείων με κινδύνων ἐλευθέρωσον
ἵνα κράζω σοι
Χαῖρε Νύμφη Ἀνύμφευτε.


As its champion General, thy City
exclaims victory hymns and thanksgiving,
to thee O God-bearer.


Having kept the country unassailed,
free me also from every peril,
that I may cry unto thee:
Hail, thou Bride Unwedded!


573: In November (exact date is unknown) of 573 AD, while the Byzantine army laid siege to the fortress-city of Nisibis (present day Turkish town of Nusaybin), a Sassanid Persian stronghold, and was apparently on the point of capturing it, the abrupt dismissal of the Byzantine commander Marcian by the emperor, led to a disorderly retreat.
Taking advantage of Byzantine confusion, Sassanid forces under the Persian Shah himself, Chosroes I (Khosrau, known in Persian commonly as Anushirvan), swiftly counter-attacked and encircled Daras, an important East Roman fortress-city in northern Mesopotamia on the border with the Sassanid Empire, eventually capturing it after a six-month siege.
The fall of Daras was the event that caused the madness of emperor Justin II; he slipped into unbridled madness and he started biting people as they passed by him. It was even rumoured that his taste for human flesh extended as far as "devouring" a number of people during his reign. Justin II abdicated in December 574 AD (he died in 578). He was succeded by Tiberius II Constantine.

Coin of Khosrau


960: During the Byzantine-Muslim Wars the remarkable victory of an outnumbered Byzantine army under the Δομέστικος τῶν Σχολῶν τῆς Δύσεως (= Domesticus Scholārum per Occidentis, the Commander of the Empire's land forces in the Balkans), Leo Phocas, is obtained against a 30,000-strong Hamdanid Shi'a Arab army under the greatest enemy of the Byzantine Empire at the time, the Emir of Aleppo, Saif al-Dawla (the epithet means Sword of the Dynasty), whose army had invaded Byzantine territory in Asia Minor, and was retreating loaded with booty and prisoners.
Leo Phocas being unable to confront the Arabs in open battle, preferred to organize an ambush at the straits of Andrassus, in Cilicia, and attacked Arab rear ranks. The Emir luckily managed to escape, but his army was completely annihilated.
It was a turning point in the long conflict between the Byzantines and Arabs in the East.
The victory enabled the Byzantines to finish the conquest of Crete and started the decline of the Hamdanids who were no longer in position to raid in Anatolia.



Leo Phocas (also known as "Leo Phocas the Younger") belonged to the famous Cappadocian family of Phocas. His father was Bardas Phocas the Elder, a famous commander of the Byzantine army during the reign of Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus; his grandfather Nicephorus Phocas the Elder was a competent and brave general who had regained southern Italy on behalf of emperor Basil I; his older brother Nicephorus Phocas was also a competent military commander who regained Crete on behalf of emperor Rhomαnus II, and usurped the throne of Eastern Roman Empire.

The Phocas family crest

Laajenna
valtrex 01.12.2014 11:08

552: During the Gothic War in Italy, the Battle of Mount Lactarius occurs in December of 552 AD (or January of 553 for other historians, as the exact date is unknown), near Vesuvius, in S. Italy.
It was the terminal defeat of the Ostrogoths of Italy by the Byzantines.
A Byzantine Expeditionary Force under the Παρακοιμώμενος καὶ Φύλαξ τῆς Βασιλείου Κλίνης (=Chamberlain and Keeper of the Royal Chamber), the eunuch, Νarses Kamsarakan (a Romanised Armenian and competent military commander), clashed with the Ostrogothic army under King Teia, on the slope of Mount Lactarius.
The battle was a hand-to-hand combat and a sheer trial of personal strength, bravery, and skill. King Teia was killed by a Byzantine lancer while the battle was young, the rest of the Goths however continued to fight until nightfall, and again the next day. Finally, seeing that there was no hope, negotiated with Narses their retirement outside Roman territory, with their belongings. Narses agreed and the battle ended.
With this victory, the Byzantines prevailed in Italy, which, for a few decades, became part of the Eastern Roman Empire again.



Chamberlain Narses, from the mosaic depicting Justinian and his entourage in the Basilica of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy.
Byzantine Παρακοιμώμενος (=Parakoimṓmenos, the Chamberlain; the name literally means "the one who sleeps beside") functioned as the Byzantine Empire's chief minister, carried a sword, wore a σκαραμάγγιν (=skaramánghin, a belted luxurious tunic with embroidered byzantine eagles), and walked just behind the emperor; the office of Parakoimṓmenos was exclusively for eunuchs, it was not to be filled by non-eunuch (called by the Byzantines as πωγωνοφόρος "beard-wearer"). Eunuchs were able to be appointed to virtually all administrative posts bar the offices of the Ἔπαρχος (=Eparch, the governor in a major city), Κοιαίστωρ (=Quaestor, judicial officer), and Δομέστικος (=Domesticus, military officer, of which existed several variants)


635: During the Byzantine-Muslim Wars, the Siege of the city of Emesa (present day Homs, Syria), is laid by the forces of Rashidun Arab Caliphate, in December 635 AD (exact date is unknown).
A 15,000-strong Arab force under Abu Ubaydah ibn al-Jarah, and Saif Allah al-Maslul, marched to the Byzantine city of Emesa in western Syria. On arrival at the city, a short battle was fought with the 8,000-strong Byzantine garrison of Emesa. The Arabs forced the Byzantines to withdraw into the fort and close the gates.



Emesa was a fortified circular-shaped city surrounded by a moat. The Arabs camped outside the city walls and stayed there during the winter. In early March, Saif made a fake withdrawal of his army from Emesa giving the Byzantines the impression that he was raising the siege. Harbees, the Ἔπαρχος (=Eparch, Gr. for Praefectus, the city’s governor), immediately led 5,000 Byzantine warriors out of the fort to chase the Arabs. He caught up with them a few miles from Emesa but the Arabs turned on them and his force was soon encircled and annihilated. After this, the locals offered to surrender on terms and Abu Ubaydah accepted the offer. The inhabitants paid the Jizya at the rate of one dinar per man. Peace returned to Emesa but it was not a Roman city anymore.

960: During the Byzantine-Muslim Wars the First Fall of Aleppo to the Byzantines, occurs in December of 960 AD (exact date is unknown).
A Byzantine Expeditionary Force under the Δομέστικος τῶν Σχολῶν τῆς Ἀνατολῆς (=Domesticus Scholārum per Orientis, the Commander of the Empire's Land Forces in Anatolia and the Middle East), Nicephorus Phocas, invaded Syria to besiege Aleppo, the capital of the eponymous Hamdanid Shi'a Arab Emirate. Nicephorus' 35-year-old nephew distinguished himself during the siege both at the side of his uncle and at leading parts of the army to battle; his name was Ioannes (John) Tzimisces, who in 969 will assassinate and succeed his uncle Nicephorus Phocas to the throne of the Eastern Roman Empire.



Domesticus Nicephorus Phocas; a modern illustration (left), and a contemporary depiction of him (right) wearing the imperial regalia


Aleppo was taken by storm, with the population killed or enslaved, and the city was razed to the ground. The Byzantine army took possession of 390,000 silver coin pieces, 2,000 camels, and 1,400 mules. Nicephorus then attacked Adana and Tarsus, in Cilicia. The capture of Crete by him, and his successful campaign against the Hamdanids, earned Nicephorus the epithet The White Death of the Saracens.



F-466, the tenth and last Standard Class Frigate of the Hellenic Navy, is named after Nicephorus Phocas, and her crest (right)


969: During the Byzantine-Muslim Wars the Second Fall of Aleppo to the Byzantines, occurs in December of 969 AD (exact date is unknown).
A Byzantine Expeditionary Force under the Στρατηγός τοῦ Θέματος τοῦ Μαύρου Ὄρους (=General of the Thema of Black Mountain, a small administrative and military district between the Mediterranean Sea and Aleppo, Syria, dominated by the Alanos mountain range, which was called by the 10th c. Byzantines "Black Mountain", present day Hatay province, Turkey), Michael Bourdzes, started a campaign aiming at retaking Aleppo which had been seized and governed by the Hamdanid emir's chief minister and chamberlain, Qarquya, who had overthrown Emir Saif al-Dawlah. The Byzantines succeeded in taking Aleppo and forced Qarquya to sign a treaty making the city a tributary Byzantine protectorate with Qarquya as emir and his deputy, Bakjur, as his designated successor.
During the second siege of Aleppo, Emperor Nicephorus Phocas was assassinated by his nephew Ioannes Tzimisces in Constantinople.



Arab Officer of the Byzantine-Muslim Wars


1224: During the Latin-Epirean War, the Fall of Thessaloniki to the Despotate of Epirus occurs in December 1224 (exact date is unknown).
The army of the Despotate of Epirus (one of the successor states of the Eastern Roman Empire which were formed after the conquest of Constantinople by the western crusaders in 1204) under the Despot of Epirus Theodore Comnenus-Doukas, forced the surrender of the city after a two-year long siege. The King of the Latin Kingdom of Thessaloniki, Demetrius, Marquess of Montferrat, together with the Latin Archbishop of the city fled to Italy.



The CoA of Montferrat and the Latin Kingdom of Thessaloniki


The capture of Thessaloniki, the second most important city in the Byzantine Empire, brought the Byzantines one step closer to the ultimate goal, the liberation of their Imperial capital, Constantinople.
In 1227, Theodore Comnenus-Doukas named himself Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire, was crowned in Thessaloniki but he was not recognized as such by the rest of the Byzantines.



Silver coin of Theodore Comnenus-Doukas, depicting St. Demetrius (the patron-saint of Thessaloniki) crowning him, probably commemorating his self-proclamation as Byzantine Emperor


1277: During the Despotate Wars, the Battle of Pharsalus occurs in December of 1277 (exact date is unknown).
A Byzantine Expeditionary Force under the Μέγας Στρατοπεδάρχης (=Grand Master of the Camp, the C-in-C of the Imperial Land Forces), Ioannes (John) Synadēnós, and the Mέγας Κονόσταυλος (=Grand Constable, third in command of the Imperial Land Forces), Michael Caballarios, clashed with the army of the Despotate of Thessaly under the Despot himself, Ioannes Doukas, at Pharsalus, Thessaly, Greece.
The Despot of Epirus, Michael II Doukas, shortly before his death, had parted the Despotate of Epirus among his two sons, Nicephorus Doukas (the legitimate son) who received the western, richest, and historical part of the Despotate, and his illegitimate son, Ioannes Doukas (also known as "John the Bastard"), who took Thessaly.



The Doukas family crest


The Despot of Thessaly achieved a crushing victory against the Imperial Byzantine army. Synadēnós was captured, while Caballarios died shortly afterwards of his wounds.
Ioannes Doukas remained ruler of Thessaly until his death in 1289. The Despotate of Thessaly lasted until 1318 when it fell to the Almogavars of the Catalan Company.



Ioannes Doukas moved his capital from the historical Thessalian capital, the city of Larissa, to the small fortified town of Neopatras at the foothills of Mount Oeta; Neopatras became also the capital of the Catalan Duchy of Neopatria; above is the the CoA of the Duchy of Neopatria

Laajenna
valtrex 12.12.2014 11:45

627: During the Byzantine-Persian Wars the Battle of Nineveh, occurs. It was a decisive Byzantine victory over Sassanid Persia.
A large Byzantine unit of ground troops (between 25,000 - 50,000-strong) under Emperor Heraclius, clashed with the Persian army under General Rhahzadh on the plain of Nineveh (near Mosul, present day Iraq).
At the height of the battle, Rhahzadh challenged Heraclius to single combat, with the hope of forcing the Romans to flee. Heraclius accepted the challenge and spurred his horse forward; the duel did not last long, as Heraclius with a single blow, struck off Rhahzadh's head.
The Persians upon seeing their brave commander and many other high-ranking officers killed by Heraclius and his troops, lost heart and were slaughtered. Almost half of the Persian army perished.



Emperor Heraclius was responsible for introducing Greek as the Eastern Roman Empire's official language, and ruled for 31 years


Following their crushing defeat the Persians sued for peace. The Byzantines did not impose harsh terms on the Persians, but they regained all their lost territories, their captured soldiers, and took the True Cross (upon which Jesus Christ was crucified) back to Constantinople.



The Byzantine Empire under Heraclius

Laajenna
valtrex 15.12.2014 18:38

533: During the Vandalic War, the Battle of Tricameron occurs, about 50 km (30 mi) W of Carthage, in present-day Tunisia.
A Byzantine ground force of ~15,000 men under the Στρατηγός Ὕπατος (=General Consul) Belisarius, charged a thrice as large Vandal army, under King Gelimer, near Carthage, the Vandalic capital. As soon as the two armies met at Tricameron, the Roman cavalry immediately charged the Vandal lines, reforming and attacking two more times. During the third charge, Gelimer's brother Tzazo was killed within sight of Gelimer and the Vandal king lost heart. The Vandal lines began to retreat, and soon were routed. Gelimer fled back into Numidia with the remains of his army, losing over 3,000 men killed or taken prisoner.





With this victory, the Byzantines regained control of North Africa and had now a springboard for their invasion of Italy. The Vandals virtually disappear from history.



Belisarius in full panoply enters Constantinople as Θριαμβευτής-Thriambeutḗs (=Triumphator) following his victory over the Vandals, under the eyes of Emperor Justinian, and Empress Theodora.
In all of his depictions Belisarius appears bearded (in Mediaeval Byzantine Greek, πωγωνοφόρος-pōgōnophóros, "beard-wearer"), in sharp contrast to eunuch officials who were non-bearded

Laajenna
Adrian Flitcroft 26.12.2014 19:03
On this day in 1943 the German Battleship Scharnhorst was sunk by the Royal Navy (and Royal Norwegian Navy) at the Battle of North Cape.
Laajenna
valtrex 31.12.2014 17:38
535: After almost two centuries of Germanic rule (first by the Vandals, later by the Ostrogoths) over the capital of the island of Sicily, Syracuse, General Consul Belisarius, defeats the Ostrogothic garrison of the city, and captures the historic Sicilian capital in the name of Emperor Justinian.



General Belisarius, from the mosaic depicting Justinian and his entourage in the Basilica of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy


The Romans -be it western, or eastern- always admired Syracuse for its beauty; in 663 AD, Emperor Constans II (aka "The Bearded") scheduled to move the imperial capital from Constantinople to Syracuse, but he died in 668. The court lost no time in returning to Constantinople.



The bearded (!!!) Emperor Constans II is depicted on a silver coin; his son, the future Emperor Constantine IV is by his side
Laajenna
valtrex 01.01.2015 11:31

634: During the Byzantine-Muslim Wars, the Battle of Firaz occurs, in January of 634 AD (exact date is unknown).
An allied army composed of Persians, Byzantines, and Christian Arabs (ca 100,000-150,000-strong, the bulk of the force was Sassanid Persians), under the Persian General Hormozd Jadhuyih, was attacked by an Arab Muslim army, under Khalid ibn al-Walid, near the Euphrates river; the united forces of the Persians and the Byzantines made the tactical mistake of having the river at their back, thus when the Arabs seized the bridge on the river, they found themselves encircled, without the ability to take advantage of their size, and were literally slaughtered by a much smaller army.
The battle was soon over and Firaz, the last stronghold of the Persians, fell to the Arab Muslims.



Khalid's tomb is present in Khalid ibn al-Walid Mosque, Homs, Syria


1224: During the Nicaean-Latin Wars, the Battle of Poemanenum occurs, in early 1224 AD (exact date is unknown).
A Nicaean Imperial force under the Emperor of Nicaea (=the largest and strongest of the three Byzantine successor states following the fall of Constantinople to the crusaders of the Fourth Crusade) Ioannes (John) III Doukas-Vatadzes, fought and defeated the Sebastokrators Isaac and Alexios Lascaris, who had risen up and revolted against the succession of Theodore I Laskaris of Nicaea, by his son-in-law, John III Doukas-Vatadzes, at Poemanenum, near Cyzicus, in Asia Minor. The two brothers had requested and received the aid of the Latin emperor, Robert de Courtenay.
At the head of a Latin army, the two brothers marched against Vatadzes.



The CoA of the Latin Empire of Constantinople


The two armies met near a church dedicated to the Archangel Michael. In the ensuing battle, John Doukas-Vatadzes achieved a decisive victory; among the captives taken were the two Lascaris brothers, who were blinded.
Most of Asia Minor was lost for the Latins, while the Byzantines recovered most of their historic possessions in the area.



Emperor John Doukas-Vatadzes is a saint of the Greek Orthodox Church; his feast day is 4 November and is known as "St. John the Merciful"


1274: During the Despotate Wars, the Battle of Neopatras occurs in early 1274 (exact date is unknown).
An Imperial Byzantine force, mostly mercenaries, which contemporary sources put -certainly with considerable exaggeration- at 30,000 men, under Σεβαστοκράτωρ (=Sebastokrátōr, venerable-ruler, a senior court title reserved for members of the Emperor's immediate family, usually his brothers) Ioannes (John) Palaeologus, and Στρατηγός (=Stratēgós, General, initially the political and military leader of a Byzantine Thema, in the Palaeologian period, a high ranking army officer) Alexius Caballarius, laid siege to the capital city of the Despotate of Thessaly, Neopatras.
The Despot of Thessaly, Ioannes (John) Doukas, managed to escape and requested the aid of John de la Roche, the Duke of the Latin Duchy of Athens.



The CoA of the Latin Duchy of Athens


John de la Roche gave Doukas 300 or 500 horsemen with whom he returned quickly to Neopatras.
The Byzantine force there had been considerably weakened, with several detachments sent off to capture other forts or plunder the region, and was furthermore unwieldy and not very cohesive; according to the Venetian historian Marino Sanudo, when de la Roche saw the huge Byzantine encampment, he uttered in Greek, a phrase from Herodotus:
Πολλοὶ μὲν ἄνθρωποι εἶεν, ὀλίγοι δὲ ἄνδρες (=there are a lot of people here, but few men).


Indeed, the Byzantine troops panicked under the sudden attack of the smaller but disciplined Latin force, and broke completely when a Cuman contingent abruptly switched sides. Despite John Palaeologus' attempts to rally his forces, they fled and scattered.



Cuman mercenary ca 1300 AD

Laajenna
valtrex 11.01.2015 11:57
532: The week-long Nika Revolt in Constantinople, begins when street brawls between the different chariot racing factions -a similar phenomenon to the sport hooliganism that occasionally erupts between rival clubs' supporters in modern times- left several of their members dead.
During the chariot racing of Sunday, January 11, 532 AD, the two major factions, Δῆμοι (=Demoi, the Demes), in the Constantinople Hippodrome, the Πράσινοι (=Prásinoi, Greens), and the Βένετοι (=Vénetoi, the Blues) began accusing each other's members as instigators of the brawls, while each faction's Δήμαρχος (=Demarch, faction-leader) used pejorative language publicly, and questioned Emperor Justininian for his inability to take measures.
http://www.youtube.com/embed/pbN8OTHecuI?wmode=opaque
24:10- The Circus, the Blues and the Greens, and the Nika Riots
Laajenna
valtrex 12.01.2015 12:27

532: During the Nika Riots, seven members of the Blues and Greens were arrested for murder under orders of the City's Ἔπαρχος (=Eparch, Constantinople's urban prefect), Eudaemon.
Three were to be hanged and four to be beheaded. Two of the arrested though, one belonging to the Blue faction, the other to the Green, escaped and with a boat, crossed the Golden Horn and seeked refuge inside a church, at Peran, the northern shore of the Golden Horn. Eudaemon, sent soldiers and arrested the two fugitives, inside the church, an act of abomination for the religious mores of the era.
According to Byzantine Historian Ioannes Malálas, "the Demes by now, despite their hatred for each other, had united before common foe, the emperor and empress, and prepared plans for next day's insurrection".

Laajenna
valtrex 13.01.2015 12:07

532: During the Nika Riots and in the middle of a chariot race, the crowd began hurling insults at Justinian. By the end of the day, during the last race, the partisan chants had changed from Blue or Green to a unified Nίκα! (=Níka! meaning Conquer!), and the crowds broke out and began to assault the palace. For the next few days the palace will be under siege. The fires that started during the tumult resulted in the destruction of much of Constantinople, including the city's foremost church, the Haghia Sophia (=Holy Wisdom), which Justinian would later rebuild.

Laajenna
valtrex 14.01.2015 11:43

532: During the Nika Riots, Justinian in order to appease the mob, and following a Senate's suggestion (some of the senators saw this as an opportunity to overthrow Justinian, as they were opposed to the new tax system, and Justinian's lack of support for the nobility), dismissed several officials, who were then replaced by senatorial protégés.

Emperor Justinian, from the mosaic depicting him and his entourage in the Basilica of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy

Laajenna
valtrex 17.01.2015 15:30

532: During the Nika Riots, Justinian proceeded to the Hippodrome (it was attached to the palace complex) and at the race of the day, made a last appeal to the crowd's finer feelings. He tried to allay their anger by appealing to their Christian faith and patriotism. But, he had appealed in vain to the crowd, and in vain to their conscience.
According to Zonarás, "the crowds answered in one voice: Ἐπιορκεῖς σγαυδᾶρι! (=perjurer aςς!)".

Mosaic of the Emperor Justinian (left), and Empress Theodora (right), with entourage from the Basiilica of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy, built in 547 or 548 AD

Laajenna
valtrex 18.01.2015 11:32
532: During the Nika Riots, a desperate Justinian, considered fleeing, but his wife Theodora dissuaded him. Although an escape route across the sea laid open for the emperor to flee to Heracleia Pontica, Theodora insisted that she would stay in the city, quoting - according to Procopius - "an ancient saying, 'Purple (the Royal colour) makes a fine burial shroud' ".
As Justinian rallied himself, he sent Chamberlain Narses, carrying a bag of gold to the Hippodrome. The slightly built eunuch entered alone and unarmed, against a murderous mob that had already killed hundreds. Narses went directly to the Blues' section, where he approached the important Blues and reminded them that Emperor Justinian supported them over the Greens. He also reminded them that the man they chose to crown, Hypatius, was a Green. As Narses left, the bribed Blues shouted to the crowds: Αὔγουστε Ἰουστινιανέ τούμβικας! (=Augustus Justinian tumvicas! tumvicas is the Greek corruption of the Latin "tu vinci" a common Roman way to cheer the emperor and means thou conquer!) and Lord saves Justinian and Theodora!
Almost immediately a quarel broke out between the supporters of Justinian and those of Hypatius and a brawl began. Then, General Belisarius with 3,000 German mercenaries, veterans of the Persian Wars, and the Illyrian General Mundus with his 3,000 Heruli, stormed into the Hippodrome. About 30,000 rioters were reportedly killed. The most violent riot in the history of Constantinople, ends in bloodshed.



Usurper Hypatius was executed, and his dead body was thrown into Bosphorus; all senators who conspired against Justinian, were stripped of their office, while their property was either confiscated by the state, or distributed to the poor. Chief instigators were exiled on the borders of the empire.
Laajenna
valtrex 24.01.2015 12:22

859: During the Byzantine-Muslim Wars, the Fall of Enna, a major Byzantine stronghold in central Sicily, to the Arabs of the Aghlabid Emirate of Ifriqiya, occurs.
An Arab force under Emir Abu'l-Aghlab al-Abbas ibn al-Fadl, captured -with the aid of a Byzantine traitor- the impregnable fortress of Enna, after several failed assaults.
All male Christian survivors from that fortress were executed; children and women were sold as slaves in Palermo. The capture of the fortress was of major importance, for Enna was the key to Muslim expansion in eastern Sicily; the Arabs now had the "navel of Sicily" and the Byzantines little else but Syracuse.


The fall of the most important fortress in the island pushed Emperor Michael III to send a large force early next year under General Constantine Kontomytes, but this, as well as the fleet which had carried it, was again defeated by Abbas.



Emperor Michael III "The Drunkard", despite having the disparaging epithet, played key role to the resurgence of Byzantine power in the 9th century.
He is also responsible for the Christianisation of Bulgaria; he defeated the Bulgars, and imposed the conversion of Khan Boris, his family, and high-ranking dignitaries to Byzantine Christianity, as part of the peace settlement in 864 AD

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valtrex 02.02.2015 11:25

876: During the Byzantine-Muslim Wars a Byzantine fleet under admiral Niketas Oryphas (or Ὠορύφας-Ōoryphas according to Ioannes Scylitzes), captured the south Italian city of Barion (present-day Bari, Italy) from the Arabs, thus ending Islam in peninsular southern Italy and restoring the hegemony of the Byzantine Empire.

The pennants of the Byzantine fleets; the Imperial, the Aegean, the Adriatic, and the Bosphorus fleets.
The earliest Byzantine commissioning pennant was the Christogram:

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valtrex 04.02.2015 14:10

634: During the Byzantine-Muslim Wars the Battle of Wadi al-Arabah occurs.
A Byzantine force of ca 5,000 foot soldiers and cavalry (including Samaritan Jews) under the Δούξ καὶ Κανδιδᾶτος (=Duke and Candidatus i.e. an officer of the Imperial bodyguards who wore a distinct uniform, the candida turba white tunic) Sergius, clashed with no more than 1,000 Arabs, commanded by Yazid ibn Abi Sufyan, near the village of Wadi al-Arabah, not far from Gaza.
The Romans were defeated and Sergius was killed. His army was almost annihilated. It was the first battle and the first victory of the Muslims marking a new era of Islamic conquests.

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valtrex 13.02.2015 13:08

1352: During the Third Genoese-Venetian War, the Naval Battle of Bosphorus occurs.
Following the short conflict between the Byzantines and the Genoese over dominance in the eastern Aegean that lasted for a few months in 1348-1349, and settled with the Genoese paying a generous compensation, a Genoese armada under the command of Paganino Doria sailed into the Aegean and besieged the Venetian fortress of Oreos in Negroponte (Euboea) island, base of the Venetian general Niccolò Pisani. The quarrel led the Genoese and the Venetian fleets meeting in Bosphorus.
In the mean time, the Venetians had formed an alliance with the Byzantine Emperor John VI Cantacuzene, and Peter IV of Aragon.

The territory and colonies of the Republic of Venice

On 13 February, 1352, a Venetian-Aragonese fleet under Pisani with 52 galleys, assisted by 12 Byzantine warships under Constantine Tarchaniotes, met the Genoese armada of 78 warships under Doria in Bosphorus.
The loss on both sides was prodigious, especially on the Aragonese, but in the end it was Venice who had to abandon the Bosphorus. Emperor Ioannes (John) VI Cantacuzene had no alternative but to seek for peace with the Genoese. Venice responded by paying his son-in-law (and next emperor) Ioannes (John) Palaeologus, to enter the war against him and the Genoese.

The Cantacuzene family arms; the family came from Smyrna (present day İzmir, Turkey) had been active in Byzantium since at least the 12th c. and was very active in Greece during the Greek War of Independence in the 1820's. Following the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks in 1453, several branches were created -via migrations- to different parts of Europe e.g. the Cantacuzino branch in Romania (then Moldavia-Wallachia), and the Кантакyзин (Kantakuzin) branch in Russia among others

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SaintsWillWIn 15.02.2015 23:33
USS Maine exploded and sank on February 15, 1898.

http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/...p/ussmaine.htm
Laajenna
valtrex 01.03.2015 12:54

922: During the Byzantine-Bulgarian Wars, the Battle of Pegae occurs, in March 922 AD (the exact date is obscure).
A large Bulgarian army under the Kavkhan (=First Minister), of the Bulgarian Tsar Simeon I, Theodore Sigritsa, reached the outskirts of Constantinople, after a swift march through the Strandzha mountains.

Tsar Simeon I the Great, the first cradle Christian emperor of the Bulgarian tsardom; during his rule, Bulgaria became the most powerful state in contemporary eastern Europe


Emperor Romanos Lekapenos sent troops under the Δομέστικος τῶν Σχολῶν (=Domesticus Scholārum, the senior military officer in the empire), Pothos Argyros, and the Δρουγγάριος τοῦ Βασιλικοῦ Πλωίμου (=Drungary of the Royal Fleet, the commander of the central Imperial Fleet, based at and around Constantinople) Alexios Mosele to face the Bulgarians.
The battle took place at Pegae, in present-day European Turkish Thrace.
The initial Bulgarian blow was irresistible, and the Byzantine commanders were the first to flee, with Mosele drowning in a desperate attempt to reach a ship. Most of the Byzantine soldiers and sailors were killed, drowned, or captured. Argyros survived the battle and became Δομέστικος τῶν Ἐξκουβίτων (=Domesticus Excubitorum, the commander of the body of the palace guards) some years later.
After the battle the Bulgarians burned the palaces in Pegae, looted the Golden Horn, and triumphantly returned to Bulgaria.
Pegae is the most humiliating defeat of the Byzantines by the Bulgarians, during their long conflict.

The Argyros family arms; the family came from Cappadocia; its members were active from the middle of the 9th c. AD until the very end of the Empire in 1453 (their name evolved the variant Ἀργυρόπουλος-Argyropoulos)


970: During the Byzantine-Rus Wars, the Battle of Arcadiopolis occurs in March 970 AD (the exact date is unknown).
A Byzantine force under the Δομέστικος τῶν Σχολῶν τῆς Δύσεως (= Domesticus Scholārum per Occidentis, the Commander of the Empire's land forces in the Balkans) Bardas Skleros, defeated a thrice as large Rus army composed of Rus, Bulgars, and a Pecheneg contingent, under the Rus Prince Sviatoslav, near the Thracian city of Arcadiopolis, some 80 km (50 mi) W of Constantinople.
After the conquest of Bulgaria by Sviatoslav at the request of the Byzantine emperor Ioannes (John) Tzimisces, the Rus prince decided to march against Constantinople.

The meeting between emperor Tzimisces and prince Sviatoslav; the Rus prince's name appears written (on the right side of the mαnuscript), as Σφενδοσθλάβος (Sphendosthlabos)


Despite the fact his army was heavily outnumbered, Skleros -following a successful stratagem- laid an ambush for the Rus army that led to a bloody and fierce clash. Soon the Pechenegs began to panic, and fled, while the Bulgars suffered heavy casualties. Eventually Sviatoslav's army was routed and was driven out of Thrace.

The Skleros family arms; the family came from the Byzantine frontier regions bordering the northern Euphrates, and became members of the Byzantine military aristocracy during the 9th-11th c. AD

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valtrex 01.03.2015 12:54

586: During the Byzantine-Persian Wars, the Battle of Arzamon occurs in the spring of 586 AD (the exact date is unknown).
A Roman force composed almost entirely of heavy cavalry (~10,000 strong), under Philippicus, defeated a similar size Sassanid Persian force under Kardarigan, near the river Arzamon, in Mesopotamia (a location at the modern Syrian borders with Turkey).
The battle was close until the moment the Byzantine Clibanophors dismounted and formed a shield-wall with their lances projecting from it, against repeated Persian attacks. Then the Clibanophors launched a successful counter-thrust which drove back the Persians in disarray.

Dismounted Byzantine Clibanophor of the 6th. c. AD.
He is also his unit's Bandophor (=flag-bearer).
He wears a dinstictive spagenhelm combat helmet with λωρίκιον (=lorica hamata mail armour), and heavy metal-plate armour, that caused the troops to heat up very quickly in the battle, or under the mediterranean hot summer sun, hence their name (Κλιβανοφόρος, or Clibanophor means "The metallic-furnace-wearer" in Mediaeval-Byzantine Greek)


The defeated Persian army suffered greatly, not only from the Byzantine pursuit, but also from lack of water; before the battle, Kardarigan had ordered the water supplies shed to the ground, to create a "win or die" attitude among the troops.


809: During the Byzantine-Bulgarian Wars, the Siege of Serdica ends in the spring of 809 AD (the exact date is unknown).
The Bulgarian Khan Krum, after the sack of the Avar Khaganate, turned his efforts to the S, and engaged in a policy of territorial expansion. He was eager to dominate the area belonging to the Slavs of the valley of the Struma River, but the main obstacle was the strong Byzantine-held fortress of Serdica (present-day Sofia, Bulgaria).

The statue of Khan Krum in Plovdiv, Bulgaria


After a long siege, Krum promised to give safe conduct for the Byzantines on condition they surrender. They agreed and Krum entered Serdica but he did not keep his promise killing the entire 6,000-strong garrison and some citizens nonetheless.
The capture of Serdica is a turning point in the history of the Balkans. It served as a base for the creation of the First Bulgarian Empire, and the troubled relationship with the neighbouring Byzantines in the decades to come.


1205: During the Fourth Crusade, the Battle of Koundouros occurs, in the spring of 1205 AD (the exact date is obscure).
A small Frankish force of 500-700 knights under Guillaume de Champlitte, was intercepted by a ~5,000-strong Byzantine force composed of Greek locals from Laconia, Arcadia, and Argolis, under the Πραίτωρ (=Praetor, the thema's civil administrator) Michael Comnenus-Doukas, and the Δούξ (=Duke, the thema's military commander) Michael Cantacuzene, at the olive grove of Koundouros, in Messenia, in SW Peloponnese.
The Franks were all heavy cavalry, while the Byzantine force composed of infantry and horsemen.
The Byzantines, encouraged by their numerical advantage, attacked first but the better equipped and more experienced Franks killed most of them and won the battle.

The CoA of the short-lived (1205-1209) Principality of Achaea. William of Champlitte ended the Byzantine Thema of Peloponnese and founded the Frankish principality comprising most of the Peloponnese peninsula

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valtrex 02.03.2015 12:50

1354: During the Byzantine-Ottoman Wars, the Fall of Kallipolis (Gallipoli) to the Ottoman Turks, occurs.
After a devastating earthquake struck Thrace (that destroyed hundreds of villages and towns) the Gallipoli city walls and nearly every building in the city were destroyed, causing its Byzantine inhabitants to evacuate it. Suleyman pasha, the eldest son of the Ottoman Sultan Orhan I, saw the opportunity and captured the city, fortifying it, and populating it with Ottoman Turkish families brought over from Asia Minor.
Emperor Ioannes (John) VI Cantacuzene tried to pursuade Suleyman to leave the city but the latter refused. The Byzantine emperor even tried to bribe him but again the generous offer was refused.
The Turks set foot in Europe.
In less than ten years, nearly all of Byzantine Thrace had fallen to the Ottomans.
Due to the loss of Gallipoli, Cantacuzene's position became unstable, and he was overthrown in November of 1354. He was succeeded by Ioannes (John) V Palaeologus.

The second Ottoman Sultan, Orhan I (1326–1359) saw the newly established empire acquiring its first European territory at Gallipoli

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